19) Formation of world religions: general and special.
Unlike national and national-state religions in which the religious connection between people coincides with ethnic and political ties, world or supranational religions unite people of common faith regardless of their ethnic, linguistic or political connections.
These are the first monotheistic religions.
The need for unification.
The need for new ideas that would give an impetus to development.
The need to strengthen state power.
There are prophets who lead the word of God to ordinary people.
There are holy books – writings, there are very similar moral rules of conduct.
Communication with God is carried out in special places – temples with the help of prayers.
There are holy memorial places of worship.
Intolerance to dissent, iritism.
Eternity of the soul, heaven and hell.
The reasons for the emergence of Islam: 1) The expansion of tribal relations in the Arabian Peninsula; 2) Transition from a nomadic to a semi-nomadic way of life; 3) The emergence of cities as trade and economic centers (Mecca, Medina); 4) The need for social integration and cultural and historical transformation.
The causes of the emergence of Buddhism: B. originated in the north-eastern part of India. The middle of the 1st millennium BC. e. was in India the time of the sharpest crisis of the ancient Vedic religion, which led to the emergence of new unorthodox alternative teachings. They were created by wandering philosophers, ascetics, shramans. One of them was Siddhartha Gautama, the historical founder of Buddhism. At the same time, intensive processes of strengthening state power took place, which required raising the authority of kings and warriors (varna kshatriyas) in opposition to the brahmanas. Since Buddhism was an opposition to Brahmanism, it was chosen to strengthen the power of the kshatriyas.
The causes of the emergence of Christianity: the socio-economic reasons, the oppressed position of millions of slaves of the Roman Empire, mostly from the East. The uprisings did not succeed (Spartacus). The new religion arose primarily among the peoples of the Eastern provinces of the Roman Empire, where the oppression of foreign domination was particularly strong, and hatred of the oppressors and despair reached its limit. Endless fees, the confiscation of property, the sale of hundreds of thousands of people, and sometimes entire cities in slavery forced to seek a way out of the situation. There was no salvation on earth. He was sought in religion. Christianity spread throughout the East of the empire and very soon penetrated Rome. Like any religion, Christianity was created by people who felt the need for a new religion and realized this need.
Sociocultural significance of world religions. “The main role of religion is the rationalization of death, that is, the realization of the tragedy of death as a good phenomenon.”
The main difference between religions is that they find the way to God differently: Christianity is the path to God through Jesus Christ, Islam is the way to God through submission, Buddhism is through enlightenment.
20) Arab caliphate and cultural contacts of the early Middle Ages.
The Arab Caliphate is a theocratic Muslim state that arose as a result of Muslim conquests in the 7th-9th centuries. and headed by the caliphs.
The socio-political situation prevailing in Arabia at the beginning of the 7th century led to the need to unite the country. The main supporters of the association were urban traders and artisans. This movement was led by Muhammad ibn Abdallah (570-632). The movement began with an appeal for a single faith. In the conversion of Muhammad to religious creativity had its own logic. He sought to develop a world outlook that would allow a person and in the conditions of social injustice to feel the value and meaning of life. He wanted to discover the basic principles of being, fair for all times and peoples, principles that would determine the best structure of society, the behavior of the individual.
Muhammad, preaching monotheism, consistently expelled any traits of any similarity between God and man and thereby completely cleared the idea of a single God from all and all traces of idolatry. He insisted that all Muslims are one people – a single community that does not know the division into tribes and clans. Thus, the doctrine of a single God eliminated the main motives of intertribal and internal enmity, affirmed the unity and social equality of believers on an international basis. Replacement of polytheism by faith in one God was beneficial to everyone who was hampered by the vestiges of the tribal system, who were torn to the broader arena of life struggle.
In history this new religion came under the name of Islam, which means submissive, faithful, bowed down. The followers of Muhammad, after accepting Islam, called themselves Muslims – orthodox. Muhammad, not having achieved success in his hometown, was forced to leave Mecca and move to Yasrib (Medina). This happened on July 16, 622. From this day, the Hijra begins – the Muslim calendar, adopted in the Islamic East. Thus, the doctrine of a single God that arose in Mecca, moves to Medina, which turns into the center of the struggle for Islam.
After Muhammad’s death, Abu Bakr (632-634), then Omar (634-64), Osman (644-656) and Ali (656-661) were declared his caliphs, or successors, first. In history these caliphs are known as the faithful caliphs. They unswervingly continued the work begun by Muhammad. During their rule, the Islamic religion completely won in Arabia. A central Muslim state was formed – the Arab Caliphate, which conquered Egypt, Syria, Iraq and part of Byzantium. Islam has become one of the world’s religions. Undoubtedly, in the adoption of the new religion by the Arab tribes, in their political association, the sacred book played a great role – the Koran is the richest and most unique source of the new Muslim ideology, which incorporates legal and ethical requirements, laws and norms of conduct.
The Arab Caliphate continued military operations both in the West and in the East. Under the strong onslaught of Arab forces, Sasanian Iran fell. In 651, the Iranian Shah Yezdagerd III was killed, and the Sassanid state, which existed for almost five centuries, was destroyed. In the same year the Arabs occupied the town of Merv without a fight. Strengthened, they began to prepare for the seizure of rich areas located beyond the Amu Darya.
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19) Formation of world religions: general and special.