China: a migration donor of APEC countries The text of a scientific article on the specialty & laquo; Economics and economic sciences & raquo;

China: a migration donor of APEC countries The text of a scientific article on the specialty & laquo; Economics and economic sciences & raquo;
Abstract of a scientific article on economics and economics, author of scientific work – Semenov Alexander Borisovich.
The article studies the migration potential of the PRC and the vector of the direction of Chinese migration flows. The result of the study is the author’s conclusion that the vector of Chinese migration has historically been directed to the South, to the countries of Western Europe and North America.
CHINA: MIGRATION DONOR OF THE APEC COUNTRIES.
The article studies migration resources of the People’s Republic of China and the direction of the vector of the Chinese migration flows. The author concludes that the Chinese migration is historically oriented on the South, into the countries of the Western Europe and Northern America.
Similar topics of scientific works on economics and economics, author of scientific work – Semenov Alexander Borisovich,
The text of the scientific work on the topic “China: the migration donor of APEC countries”
Semenov Alexander Borisovich.
Semenov Alexander Borisovich.
senior lecturer of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology.
Komsomolsk-on-Amur State Technical University [email protected]
Senior Lecturer of the Philosophy and Social Science Department, Komsomolsk-on-Amur State Technical University [email protected]
CHINA: MIGRATION DONOR OF APEC COUNTRIES [1]
CHINA: MIGRATION DONOR OF THE APEC COUNTRIES [1]
The article studies the migration potential of the PRC and the vector of the direction of Chinese migration flows. The result of the study is the author’s conclusion that the vector of Chinese migration has historically been directed to the South, to the countries of Western Europe and North America.
The article studies migration resources of the People’s Republic of China and the direction of the vector of the Chinese migration flows. The author concludes that the Chinese migration is historically oriented on the South, into the countries of the Western Europe and Northern America.
climate, economy, infrastructure, migration, China, PRC, APEC.
climate, economy, infrastructure, migration, China, People’s Republic of China, APEC.
International migration has become one of the important factors of world development. APEC countries are exchanging not only goods and services, but also human resources, China is one of the important players on the labor market. For the Russian Federation, which is experiencing an acute shortage of manpower resources, the problem of Chinese migration seems especially urgent.
Historically, the Chinese migration flows have been strongly influenced by China’s natural and climatic conditions.
The eastern part of China, adjacent to the Pacific coast, is very densely populated. The western and central part of the PRC is not very populous. The historical pattern of Chinese mass colonization lies in the fact that it becomes possible only where there are favorable natural and climatic conditions. The Chinese colonization does not know any other regularities. In the northern Far-Eastern regions, only rare, scattered and small settlements were seen [2].
E.S. Kulpin writes that the Chinese colonization of the south began already in the 1st millennium BC, but its scale, dynamics and course can be fairly clearly represented only from the time of regular population censuses. The first population census (2 AD) showed that about one-fifth of the country’s fifty-eight million people lived in the south. By the time of the census of 140, there have been significant changes in the territorial distribution. The total population decreased by 8-9 million people, with the population of the northwest declining by 6.5 million people, the north-east by 11 million people, and the population of the south increased mainly as a result of migration of northerners, rather than their own reproduction by 9 million people or almost two and a half times [3, p. 39]. The migration of the Chinese to the south can partly be explained by the natural and climatic features of the region, which made it possible to start the economy without any significant investment of capital. In the south, where the use of draft animals was not a prerequisite for effective management, the northern peasant could feed himself on a relatively small plot of land with the aid of an attack and a few other manual tools of labor, later on the family, his great-grandsons could process not the virgin soil, but the fertile rice field created by the labor of previous generations. As V. Malyavin believes, the process of colonization of the central regions of the South and the transition to intensive methods of management basically ended in the middle of the fifth century, peasants of the South began to receive 2 crops a year. In these centuries there were mass migrations of northerners to the South, and the scale of migration far surpassed the previous ones [4, p. 150-154]. The movement to the south continued throughout the country’s further history. By the first third of the twentieth century. Every year half a million Chinese left the country. Most migrated to South-East Asia [5, p. 180]. If the colonization of the South has a thousand-year history, then the colonization of the North began relatively recently. In 1878, a ban was lifted for the resettlement of the Chinese from.
central provinces in the imperial domain – Manchuria. In 1880, the government allowed the exploration of new lands of Gansu, Ningxia and Xinjiang, in 1898 colonization of Inner Mongolia began. However, these activities contributed to the growth of the population only in Manchuria (to which the colonized regions of Inner Mongolia were annexed). There the population to the beginning of the twentieth century. has grown from 3 million people to 13 million people [6, p. 169].
In the distribution of the population density of Northeast Asia, there is a pattern common to both Russia and China: as from the areas of Central China, the population density decreases to the north and northeast. This is well supported by the figures: in Liaoning Province, the population density was 276.7 people per km2, farther to the northeast, in Jilin Province, it decreases to 136.9 people, and even further, in Heilongjiang Province to 80.2 [7 ]. China has a strong internal migration. Powerful flows of migrants were directed to the East and South-East, to the coastal provinces. The most powerful movement of migrants was in Guangzhou, located in close proximity to the special autonomous regions of China – Hong Kong and Macau. For the years 2000-2005. The net migration increase was 10.3 million people (27%). The migratory growth of Shanghai was more modest: for 2000-2005. almost 2.7 million people (7%) [8].
China’s internal migration has historically been directed to the south. External migration flows are always sent to the richer countries of the “North”. Over the past decade, the net migration outflow from the PRC on average was about 350 thousand people or 0.03% per year. Thus, migration has so far had virtually no noticeable effect on the population of China. The average version of the UN’s projections for the 2006 revision is based on the fact that in the forecast period the volume of net emigration from China will remain unchanged [9]. If 350 thousand emigrants are taken for a constant value, then it turns out that in the eight years (from 2000-2008) only 2 million 800 thousand people emigrated from China.
For the first 8 years of the XXI century. waves of Chinese migration were sent to the South of China, to Western Europe and the United States. The Chinese sought to leave for rich and economically promising countries. The Chinese diaspora has grown in almost all developed countries. Even in Japan, where there are very persistent nationalistic sentiments, the Chinese community has overtaken the Korean diaspora in its number. In 2003, there were 462,000 Chinese living in Japan, but already in 2006 it reached a population of 561,000. According to information for 2005, only 20% of Chinese were permanent residents of Japan, from 1990 to 2005. 58 879 people became citizens of this country. Since 2000, more than 4,000 Chinese have received citizenship annually and more than 11,000 have received permanent resident status [10, p. 113-121].
According to Eurostat, the number of Chinese citizens living in the EU countries and in some other European countries is about 500 thousand people. At the beginning of 2007, most of the Chinese lived in Italy (145 thousand people), Spain (108 thousand people), Germany (81 thousand people).
The volume of immigration from China to European countries in the last decade of the twentieth century. was about 70 thousand people a year. A significant flow of migration was sent to the UK – up to 38 thousand people in 2004 and 38 thousand people in 2006. Approximately 14 thousand people annually arrived in Spain, Germany and Italy [11].
In 2005, 35.7 million natives of other countries lived in the US, the world economic leader. Almost 11 million people were Mexicans, 4.9 million people were Europeans and only 1.4 million people were from China and India. The number of illegal immigrants from China for 2000-2005. increased from 190 to 230 thousand people. American statistics show that for 2000-2007. the right to permanent residence in the United States received 455 thousand people, and for 1991-2000. – 419 thousand people [12].
Summarizing, we can say that China is one of the important donors for the export of labor resources to the APR and Western Europe.
References and notes:
1. The scientific research was carried out with the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia within the framework of the federal target program “Scientific and Scientific Pedagogical Staff of Innovative Russia” for 2009-2013: Grant Agreement No. 14.B37.21.0958.
2. Zotov O. Chinese in the Russian Far East: the norm or threat? / International Eurasian Institute of Economic and Political Studies. URL: http://iicas.org/articles/ks_26_04_01.htm (reference date: 19.12.2007).
3. Kulpin-Gubaydulin E.S. East: Nature – technology – mentality in the Far East. M., 2011.
7. Dudchenko G. China and the Far East of Russia: the issue of demographic imbalance / / Demoscope. 2004. � 165-166. 16-19 April. URL: http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/2004/0165/analit06.php (reference date: 14.09.2011).
9. Shcherbakova E. World demographic barometer // Demoscope. 29.09-12.10.2008. No. 347-348. URL: http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2008/0347/barom02.php (date of circulation: 18.09.2011).
10. Kovrigin, NA, “Chinese Migration to Japan: History and the Present,” in: Russia and the Pacific Rim. 2009. � 4. P. 113-121.


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