Educational institutions for the disabled in Spain.
Spain is a country that is ideal for teaching people with any opportunities, including limited ones. Inclusive education in Spain blurs the boundaries between pupils (students) with special needs and healthy children. This advanced education system is based on the fact that all children, despite their physical, intellectual or other characteristics, are included in the general education system and are trained with their peers, and not isolated from them. At the same time, inclusive education, in particular, educational institutions that work within the framework of this concept, take into account the special educational needs of their students with disabilities. That is why it can be argued that Spain is a country of unlimited educational opportunities.
Schools for the disabled in Spain.
In Spain, pupils with special educational needs can be trained both in regular schools (inclusive education or specialized classes in a regular school) and in specialized educational centers. However, it should be noted that inclusive education in Spain is becoming increasingly popular, and training in specialized centers is held only by those children who can not provide all the necessary conditions for the learning process in the ordinary school.
Inclusive education is considered the most advanced system for the education of children with disabilities. That is why in schools at the level of primary and secondary education (Educacion Infantil), children with disabilities are trained on a par with regular students. The Spanish legislative framework contains a number of royal decrees that regulate the access of pupils with special needs to the general education system. In 2013, the Act on improving the quality of education came into force (LOMCE, 2013), which emphasizes the need to provide specific educational needs for children with various opportunities (provides for the possibility of minor changes in the school curriculum, the involvement of additional educators, and the development of specific educational methodologies and materials). Royal Decree of December 5, 1537/2003 obliges all educational institutions to comply with minimum requirements for premises and territories to eliminate the problems of moving students with special needs; the premises of educational centers should correspond to hygienic and acoustic standards, be safe for pupils with any needs. Schools that accept disabled children are also required to compile adapted programs, taking into account the needs of all pupils, and teachers who work with disabled children should undergo special vocational training.
In order to provide future teachers with the proper knowledge and skills, Spanish universities offer a large number of master’s programs in inclusive education. Teachers prepared under these programs are trained to create and guarantee equal opportunities and attention to each student.
In general, everyone benefits from the practice of inclusive education in schools. Children with disabilities are included in the general education system, do not feel isolated from society, have the opportunity to develop and acquire knowledge, communicate with peers and live a full life. Healthy children learn tolerance, humanity, willingness to help. Inclusive education expands the personal abilities of students and educators and integrates them with work on a common goal – the implementation of quality education for children with any opportunities.
Admission to regular schools for children with special needs for health is the same as for the reception of healthy children. The law on the quality of Spanish education from 2002 regulates the admission of students with special educational needs in accordance with the level of development and age of the student. If the psychological and pedagogical assessment shows that the child needs a different type of training, or if the school does not have the necessary resources, he is enrolled in a specialized school or in a special class in the main school. The decision to teach a child not in a regular school is regularly reviewed, everything possible is done to integrate children with disabilities into the overall educational process.
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The number of pupils in the classes in which the child with special needs is trained should not exceed 25 students. In special classes in a regular or special school, the number of students can be reduced. For example, in the classrooms for children with physical or severe auditory deviations, the number of students does not exceed 12. In specialized classes for children with autism or severe mental disabilities, the number of students is from 3 to 5.
Cycles of school education available for children with special educational needs:
Educacion Infantil – primary and secondary education for children from 6 to 12 years; Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO) – education for children from 12 to 16 years.
After the successful completion of this cycle, children receive a certificate of compulsory secondary education (Titulo de Graduado en ESO). Students who, due to special educational needs, could not complete this educational cycle, receive a special document confirming the number of years of study and points received in various subjects. With such a document, special social security programs are available for children, which provide an opportunity for professional training and enable them to start working in the future.
After successful completion of compulsory education, disabled children, depending on their abilities and desires, can also continue their education in the following programs:
Programas de cualificacion profesional inicial (PCPI) – for those who wish to obtain professional qualifications; Bachillerato – for children from 16 to 18 years who plan to continue their education in universities.
The Spanish state supports children with disabilities and tries to facilitate their transition to adulthood. A lot of support programs for disabled people are developed both by the Kingdom of Spain itself and jointly with other EU countries.
University education for the disabled in Spain.
Inclusion in education is realized in the universities of Spain. Royal Decree 1/2013 (Real Decreto Legislativo 1/2013) obliges higher education institutions to create equal conditions and opportunities, to provide free access to higher education for people with special health needs. The number of people with disabilities who decided to get a university education in Spain is constantly growing. If in 2007 only 4% of the total number of disabled people started their education in universities, in 2012 this figure increased to 14.7%. According to statistics for 2014, the number of students with different physical, intellectual or other needs was 17.3%, of which 6.2% – students of doctorate (graduate school).
Students with disabilities can choose programs for full-time education, as well as distance education, as well as mixed ones. Many universities have special support centers for students with special needs. Many campuses of universities are equipped with special elevators, computer classes and parking lots for students with disabilities.
The above information convincingly proves that Spain is an excellent place for training, the most important is to choose the optimal training center.
The center of services for business and life in Spain “Spain in Russian” will consult, help with the selection of educational institutions, design and translation of all necessary documents.
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Educational institutions for the disabled in Spain.