Heroes of France, our compatriots.
The official edition of the French Foreign Legion is the magazine Kepi Blanc, who responded with an obituary to his death: “His career, unusual and exciting, is measured by the distance from a 2nd-grade legionary soldier to the corps general and the ambassador of France.” Louis Aragon said this about this man: “Zinovy Peshkov was both an actor and a witness of this era. He played one of the most unusual roles in it. “[And this is from the publication in Parisien:” He was one of the most unusual figures in the French army. ” “Figaro” expressed it as follows: “He won his French citizenship with spilled blood.
On June 22, 1941, by order of the occupation authorities, general arrests were made among the Russian population of Paris. The detainees in the course of these raids were detained in the Compiegne camp. Among them were IA Krivoshey, DM Odinets, PA Bobrinsky, the son of Matilda Kshesinskaya, Prince VA Romanovsky-Krasinsky, the former Russian military attache in Washington, General NL Goleevsky, Father Konstantin (Zambrezhitsky ), only about a thousand people. Most of those arrested were released in 7-8 months, and only Goleevsky in a year and a half.
On December 15, 1940, in the underground printing house of the Anthropology Museum in Paris, research workers, emigrants Boris Wilde and Anatoly Levitsky, published the first issue of a leaflet entitled “Resist!”, Which gave the name to the entire guerrilla movement in France. Researcher of collaboration and Resistance in the Second World War, Boris Kovalev and does argue that “in France, the Resistance movement begins from the environment of Russian immigration, and not from among ethnic French.”
The famous writer and literary critic Princess Zinaida Shakhovskaya since 1940 was in the sanitary forces of the French army, and then took part in the Resistance in the south of France. In January 1942, with the help of friends, she crossed over to England, where she worked as an editor of the French news agency in London. During her time in the war she was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor.
Since 1920, Vera lived in emigration in France. In 1937, she married Prince Nikolai Aleksandrovich Obolensky (1900-1979).
Since the beginning of the occupation of France by Germany in 1940, joined the Resistance Movement and joined one of the underground circles. This circle, after merging with another group, became known as Organization Civile et Militaire (OCM, “Civil and Military Organization”). The OSM was engaged in intelligence activities, as well as the organization of shoots and the export of British prisoners of war abroad. Obolenskaya was the general secretary of the organization: she was in charge of communication with other clandestine groups and coordinating joint actions. In 1943, the organization began to work with Soviet prisoners of war.
Vera Obolenskaya was arrested on December 17, 1943 in a safe house. In prison she for a long time managed to mislead the Gestapo investigators, and then she refused to give any evidence at all. The evidence of this episode is preserved: the German investigator asked her with feigned bewilderment how this Russian anti-communist emigre can resist Germany fighting against communism. But Vicki replied: “The goal you pursue in Russia is the destruction of the country and the destruction of the Slavic race , world domination and as a Christian, educated in philanthropy, she does not accept anti-Semitism. I’m Russian, but I grew up in France and spent my whole life here. I will not betray either my homeland or the country that sheltered me. After the death sentence, Vera Obolenskaya was asked to write a petition for pardon, but she refused.
In July 1944, after the landing of the Allies in Normandy, Obolenskaya was transported to Berlin. On August 4, 1944, at 13 o’clock, she was guillotined in Plotzenze prison. She was posthumously awarded.
� Cavalier cross of the Order of the Legion of Honor.
� Military cross with a palm branch.
� Order of the Patriotic War I degree (18.11.1965)
The father of the future writer, actor Lazar Samuelovich Kessel (May 20, 1899-1920), left Russia together with his parents and brother in 1908 and settled in Nice where he played under the actor’s pseudonym Sieber, but committed suicide at the age of 21, leaving two-year-old Maurice an orphan. Mother subsequently married Rene Druon and took his name. His uncle, brother Lazar Joseph (Joseph) Kessel (1898-1979), writer, journalist and hero of the French Resistance had a great influence on young Maurice.
He was amazingly talented, his native language was Russian, then he switched to Polish, most books he wrote in French, six novels in English, and then he translated them into French … He put the films on his own books, which were then banned in France … He was a French diplomat – embassy employee in Sofia, Bern, London, Consul General of France in Los Angeles … He was a hero of the Resistance and a personal friend of Charles de Gaulle …
In 1925, the parents parted and the mother and her son returned to their parents (Ioslu and Gitl Ovchinsky) in Sventsyani, and the following year moved to their older brother, lawyer Abram-Borukh Ovchinsky, to Warsaw. In Warsaw, Roman Katsev spent two years at the Michal Kreczmar School, ul Wylcza.
In 1928, his mother and son moved to France, to Nice, where her other brother had previously moved. Roman studied law in Aix-en-Provence and in Paris. In addition, he was trained in flying business, preparing to become a military pilot.
During the Second World War, Roman had to emigrate to the UK, where he joined the French forces formed by de Gaulle. During the war, he used the pseudonym “Romain Gary de Katz,” probably choosing a name with a particle “de” to resemble his comrades, most of whom were of noble origin. For the valor shown during the military actions, he was awarded the Medal for Military Merit and the Military Cross, and in 1945 he became a Knight of the Order of the Legion of Honor. He fought as a pilot in Europe and Africa.
The novel “Education europienne”, which received a literary critique in 1945, was the first French work published after the war, which speaks of Nazism and the movement of the Resistance.
For participation in the demonstration in 1938, he was arrested and put in a concentration camp “Verne”. With the arrival of the Germans, he ends up in a Nazi concentration camp. In 1942, he manages to escape, he makes his way to Paris and under the nickname “Joseph” fights against Nazism in the detachment of Misaka Manushian, consisting mainly of former fighters of international brigades in Spain, interned by the French after the fall of the Spanish Republic.
The “Manushian group” included:
� Celestino Alfonso is a Spaniard;
� Olga Banchik (Olga Bancic) – Bessarabian Jewess;
� Imre Bekes Glas (Imre B; k; s Glasz) – Hungarian Jew;
� Jozsef Bocov (J; zsef Boczov) – Hungarian Jew;
� Wolf Wajsbrot (Wolf Wajsbrot) – Polish Jew;
� Robert Witchitz is French;
� Jonas Geduldig (Jonas Geduldig) – Polish Jew;
� Leon Goldberg (L; on Goldberg) – Polish Jew;
� Szlama Grzywacz – Polish Jew;
� Rino Della Negra (Rino Della Negra) – Italian;
� Georges Claarec – French;
� Stanislas Kubacki (Stanislas Kubacki) – a Pole;
� Arpen Tavitian (Arpen Tavitian) – Armenian;
� Cesare Luccarini – Italian;
� Missak Manouchian is an Armenian;
� Marcel Rayman (Marcel Rayman) – Polish Jew;
� Roger Rouxel is a Frenchman;
� Antonio Salvadori (Antonio Salvadori) – Italian;
� Amadeo Usseglio – Italian;
� Maurice Fingercwajg (Maurice Fingercwajg) – Polish Jew;
� Spartaco Fontano (Spartaco Fontano) – Italian;
� Willy Szapiro – Polish Jew;
� Tamas Elek is a Hungarian Jew.
Together with his friends from the Union of Friends of the Soviet Motherland, he takes part in the organization of the Union of Soviet Patriots. The aim of both these organizations was to help Soviet citizens and prisoners of war, organize their escape, accommodation in French families and assistance in the transition to partisans. One of these families, sheltering Soviet prisoners of war, was the family of Diran’s friend Misha Aznavourian, the father of Charles Aznavour.
After World War II, almost 60,000 Russians settled in France. Most of them got there as prisoners of war, and they managed to escape from deportation.
Heroes of France, our compatriots.