Jews in America are emigrating h1>
(BEFORE THE FIRST WORLD WAR)
FIRST JEWS IN AMERICA.
The discovery of America by Columbus coincided with the expulsion of Jews from Spain. As the newly discovered land was in the hands of Spain and Portugal, access there to the Jews was closed. A small number of forcibly converted Jews (Marrans) who settled in America were persecuted there, as the Inquisition was established in the New World. When the Dutch conquered the northeastern part of Brazil (1630), freedom of religion was proclaimed there, just as it was in Holland itself. But the Dutch government did not last long, in the middle of the XVII century, the Portuguese returned here, and the Jews had to leave this part of Brazil.
FIRST JEWS IN NORTH AMERICA.
Recife (Brazil), around 1600
During the 100 years that preceded the American Revolution (1776-1783), Jews settled in most British colonies in North America. The most important places of their settlement were the port cities of New Port, Philadelphia, Charleston, Savannah. The Jews of the North American colonies enjoyed all the basic civil rights – the right to reside in any place and to own houses, the right to engage in any profession, the right to freely practice their religion. The main limitation of their rights was that they could not hold positions in the local and central administration. This situation persisted until the beginning of the American Revolution.
The main occupation of the Jews of America in the colonial period was trade, as well as craft. The economic level of their lives was high enough, since the vast majority of Jews belonged to the middle class. Members of the Jewish community felt themselves an integral part of the world around them. At the same time, they sought to ensure the preservation of the Jewish millennial heritage.
The first in the history of New Amsterdam (now New York) is a record that mentions Jews. It was made in Dutch on September 7, 1654.
JEWS IN THE PERIOD OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.
Mordechai Manuel Hoax.
During the War of Independence, the foundations of American democracy were laid. The American Constitution of 1787 proclaimed that “one should never demand belonging to any religion as an indispensable condition for holding any office or performing any public duties in the United States.” Later, religion was separated from the state, and it was also forbidden to convert any kind of religion into state religion or restrict the free expression of religious feelings. Thus, the emancipation of Jews in the United States was achieved earlier than it did in Western Europe. Most Jews, both during the revolution and after it, practically did not participate in political life. Some of them, for example the cantor Gershom Seixas (1745-1816) or the journalist and diplomat Mordechai Hoax (1785 – 1851), tried to connect American patriotism with the belief in a “return to Zion.” The first decades of the existence of the American state were a quiet period for the Jews.
Part of the interior of the Thuro Synagogue in Newport (USA, Rhode Island). It is one of the oldest synagogues in America, its building is protected by law.
GERMAN JEWS COLLECT IN AMERICA (1820-1880)
The license for peddling on March 23, 1787, issued by Benjamin Franklin to the Jew Solomon (Shlomo) Raphael.
The “gold rush” of the 50s of the XIX century led many Jews to California. It is believed that the number of Jews in one of the largest cities of California – San Francisco reached then 10,000. But already at that time the Jewish community of New York was the most significant of all Jewish communities in America – 40,000 Jews. In general, by 1880, there were 260,000 Jews in America.
A document dated October 30, 1761, attesting that the General Assembly of the State of Rhode Island granted Aharon Lopez and Yitzhak Eliezer, residents of the city of Newport, the right to naturalize, purchase land and transfer property by inheritance. However, as Jews, they did not receive the right to vote and to hold public office.
EMIGRATION OF THE JEWS FROM EASTERN EUROPE TO AMERICA (1880-1914)
The bulk of Jewish immigrants settled in major cities. The quarters in which they lived were terribly overpopulated, mud and unsanitary conditions reigned in the houses. These people, in the main, earned their livelihood by exhausting work in the “sweatshops” for making ready-made dresses. In 1890, more than 13,000 Jews in New York were employed in the tailoring industry; In the future, this industry turned into almost exclusively Jewish. Heavy working conditions contributed to the emergence in the late 19th century of an organized and strong Jewish labor movement.
Despite difficult working conditions, emigrants from Eastern Europe strongly influenced the development of Jewish cultural life and filled it with new content. This was greatly facilitated by the absence of harassment and restrictions. In America, Eastern European emigrants continued to use the Yiddish language. Between 1872 and 1917, there were at least 150 newspapers in Yiddish in America. For a long time, the Forverts newspaper, which is still very popular, was extremely popular. There were also prints in Hebrew and Ladino, but they were few.
Since the 1880s, Jews have begun to occupy a prominent place in American cultural, social and political life. The first American to receive the Nobel Prize was physicist Albert Abraham Michelson. The first minister of Jewish origin in the US government was Oscar Strauss. In 1916, President Wilson appointed a prominent lawyer and Zionist Louis Brandeis as a member of the Supreme Court.
On the eve of the First World War, American Jewry, which became the second Jewish community in the world, was a fairly cohesive ethnic group that sought to take its proper place in American society.
The company for the production of wool and leather products, owned by H. Coon in Salt Lake City (Utah). 1870’s.
Hebrew terms and names.
2 The sign of h is used only in lists of Hebrew terms and names, and also in tables and is read as English h or approximately as Ukrainian “g”. (Note lane).
Web page created by �.�. Belgorod May 20, 2011