Migration of the population.
Migration refers to resettlement or relocation caused by a change of residence. With the exception of crossings within a single settlement, or a minor administrative center.
Migration of the population was the most important event in the life of mankind and its development. Thanks to migration, we can observe the diversity of races and ethnoses of the world population. People occupied all the territory suitable for living. Thanks to migration, millionaires, urban agglomerations and congestion conglomeration (conurbation) were created. In the modern world there are not a few states whose creation they owe to migrants. So recently (by historical standards), the United States and Australia, New Zealand and Canada were formed. To date, hundreds of millions of people are involved in migration processes.
Migration is divided into internal (within the borders of countries) and external (with the crossing of state borders).
The main reason for the movement of the population is naturally the desire of man to live better. But there are also so-called opposite flows, when the conditions remain approximately equal. Exception is forced resettlement (in case of major catastrophes or wars, deportations and divisions of the state).
The most famous and large migration flow of the last centuries is connected with the settlement of the countries of Europe by the American continent. The main country of migrants is the United States. Other colonizers chose the South African Union, New Zealand and Australia. Many immigrants found their home in Canada, Argentina and Brazil. From the 19th century until 1914, 50 million people left Europe, and 1/3 of this number migrated in the opposite direction.
The original national composition of the settlers determined the shape of the states they occupied: the USA and Canada – English-speaking states, Argentina, Mexico, etc. – Hispanic. Migration flows in the United States at first were mainly English and Irish, later they were joined by immigrants from Germany and the Nordic countries, and then – from Eastern Europe (in Canada there are still a significant part of the population are descendants of Ukrainians).
Human settlement of the territory of the land marked the beginning of migration – the movement of people from one place of residence to another.
Currently, it is common to distinguish two main forms of migration:
1. internal migration – the movement of the population within the country from villages to cities, from cities to villages, from one region to another;
2. External migration – the movement of the population from one country to another.
Emigration is the exit from the country. Immigration is the entry into the country.
� By area:
Special forms of migration are:
� Nomadism as a form of economic activity and associated way of life;
� & Quot; pendulum & quot; Migration, arising from the constant movement of people along the same path (to the place of work or study and back).
There are quite a lot of migrations. The most important of them is the economic one. At the same time, it is common to distinguish between two types of migrations having economic causes.
1. Resettlement migration associated with the development of new lands. These include:
o the relocation of people to new colonial possessions, which began with the era of the Great Geographical Discoveries;
o Forcible & quot; transfer & quot; Negro slaves from Africa to America in the XVI-XIX centuries;
o & quot; migration explosion & quot; XIX century in Europe, when in the period of development of capitalism people rushed to those areas where there were free lands. Most of these migrants were given Britain, Germany, Italy, France, Spain. They were resettled in the USA, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, South Africa.
2. Labor migration associated with the conclusion of labor contracts. For example, Chinese and Indian coolies. Currently, more than 25 million migrant workers are contracted in developed countries. A special place is occupied by such a phenomenon as the “brain drain”, which is based on economic reasons. It appeared after. World War II, when specialists from the fields of physics, rocketry, etc. were exported from Germany to the United States. The greatest outflow of scientists from developing countries to the USA, France, and Canada occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. In recent years, the “drain of minds” especially affected India, the Philippines, the republics of the former USSR.
Other, equally important reasons for migration are political. Examples of such migrations include:
� The emigration of half a million citizens from fascist Germany and Italy, Franco’s Spain;
� Emigration from Russia after the October Revolution;
� Emigration from Chile after General Pinochet came to power;
� Outflow of the white population from the countries of Asia and Africa that have freed themselves from colonial dependence;
� Forcible deportation to Germany of 10 million people. from the occupied countries during the Second World War.
In addition to the mentioned population migration, they can be caused by national, religious, environmental and other reasons.
The main centers of immigration for a long time were the USA, Canada, Australia, Brazil, South Africa. However, after the Second World War, the total flows of intercontinental migrations declined, but intracontinental migrations increased. An important center for the attraction of labor was Central Europe, home to 12-13 million foreign workers from countries of Southern Europe (Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia), Asia (India, Pakistan, Turkey) and North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Egypt ).
A new region of labor immigration has developed in the oil-producing countries – Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar. Here workers come from Egypt, Yemen, Syria, Sudan, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and others.
The US and Canada also remain an important center for labor immigration. The total number of foreign labor in these countries is estimated at about 6 million people.
A new wave of external migration is associated with political events in Eastern Europe. Only in Germany since 1989, about 2 million people – Germans from the GDR, the countries of Eastern Europe and the USSR, immigrated.
A new migration phenomenon of recent years is the increase in the number of refugees from zones of territorial conflicts. The number of refugees now stands at about 20 million people.
Migration has a significant impact on the structure of the population. Thus, labor immigration increases the proportion of the economically active population in the total population of the country, as well as the proportion of the male population, since in the majority migrants seek men’s jobs.
The population change between censuses is tracked by means of current population accounting, which is based on statistics of natural and migration (mechanical) population movements.
The natural movement of the population is the change in the population due to birth and death. In statistics, the indicator of natural population growth is widely used, which is defined as the difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths for a certain period, having in mind primarily a positive result (the number of births should exceed the number of deaths). If the difference has a negative result, then we are talking about the indicator of natural population loss.
Reproduction of the population is measured with the help of the total fertility rate and the total death rate (calculated per 1000 people, ie per mille, �).
The total fertility rate characterizes the intensity of childbirth with respect to the population as a whole (of all ages) and is calculated as the ratio of the number of people born alive during the year (N) to the average annual population (
The intensity of mortality is measured by the overall mortality rate, which is the ratio of the total number of deaths during the year (M) to the average annual population:
In population statistics, the coefficient of natural increase (decrease), which is the difference between the birth rate and the death rate, is also used.
Of great importance for the analysis of the natural movement of the population is the calculation of age-specific fertility rates (coefficients for individual age groups of women) and.
The most important part of the statistical information on the death rate of the population is the death rate of children in the first year of life. This refers to the infant mortality rate, which is the ratio of the number of deaths under the age of one year (M 0) to the number of live births:
A general indicator is the indicator of the average life expectancy that can be calculated for any age group by dividing the sum of the upcoming person-years to be lived by a group of people from the age of x to the maximum age inclusive (T x) by the number of the studied generation surviving to age x (L x):
Statistical information indicates that life expectancy in Russia has declined in the last decade (Table 1).
Source: Russian Statistical Yearbook. – M., 1999. P. 97.
In addition to natural movement, the population of the country has a large impact on the population of the country (migration of the population). The change in the population in certain areas due to migration is a mechanical movement of the population.
Migration of the population is the movement of people (migrants) across the borders of certain territories (country, region, region, district, etc.) associated with the change of residence permanently or for a more or less long time. Migration flows are an important subject of research, since they give information about how the population moves, in what direction, what is the socio-demographic composition of migrants.
The main indicators of migration include the following:
o number of arrivals – P;
o number of disposals – B;
o migration increase – (P – B), if P & gt; AT;
o migration outflow – (P – B), if P & lt; AT.
The person who left the territory is considered to be retired. Persons who entered the territory from outside the territory belong to the arrivals. The number of departures and arrivals is determined by the indicators of registration records at the place of arrival and departure.
For statistical characteristics of migration processes, the calculated relative indicators are used: intensity factors (arrival, retirement, migration turnover), migration efficiency factor.
This coefficient characterizes the number of people arriving per 1000 people on average per year.
This ratio characterizes the number of people who left for 1000 people on average per year.
Rate of intensity of migration.
This coefficient can have both a positive value (+) and a negative (-) and characterizes the inflow in a positive sense, and in the negative – an outflow.
The coefficient of migration (mechanical) growth.
Finally, the migration efficiency factor is an important indicator.
Modern international migration of the population is a multifaceted phenomenon that affects all aspects of the development of society, be it economics or politics, demographic processes or national relations, ideology or religion. Speaking in the past mainly in the forms of nomadism, military and colonization resettlements, international migration of the population with the development of the capitalist system of management has acquired new features. There was a need for huge displacements of people deprived of the means of production. The modern world migration process in its content and massiveness differs substantially from similar processes not only of the last century, but also of the first half of the last century. Its main features are as follows.
1. Migration has spread across all continents, the whole world and has become truly global. At the beginning of the last decade of the XX century. in the world already there were more than 45 million migrant workers. The unprecedented scale of the global migration of labor resources is an important feature of the present.
2. If in the 50-70-ies. migration was mainly from developing countries to industrialized, then from the 80’s. there is also a counter migration process: the movement of foreign labor from more developed to less developed countries.
3. The dominant motive of labor migration remains economic.
4. Migration of labor resources is facilitated by modern production technologies based on the principles of the international division of labor. This is primarily due to the activities of transnational companies that organize production in the world economy.
5. At the present stage of development, illegal migration of labor has significantly increased, which has become a world problem. In the early 90’s. In Europe there were approximately 2 million illegal immigrants. In the US there are 6 million, and according to some sources -13 million. These are mainly Mexicans working in the agricultural sector. In Japan, there are less than 300 thousand, in Malaysia about 500 thousand, in Russia from 500 thousand to 1 million.
6. In the international migration, qualitative changes occur due to scientific and technical progress, the essence of which is a significant increase in the number of qualified specialists among migrants. Today, this process has some new features.
First. The “brain drain” was replaced by their circulation: a diversification of migration directions occurred. The US continues to be a universally recognized center of attraction for professionals. But at the same time, representatives of the professional elite from the industrialized countries, as already noted, go to temporary work in developing countries.
The second. A fundamentally new phenomenon was the movement of professionals not only “to capital”, but also “simultaneously with or following the capital.” First of all, this is due to the activities of TNCs and the great opportunities for career advancement for professionals.
Third. The current level of migration professionals is fundamentally different organizational level, expressed in the emergence of a kind of international corporation “bounty hunters.”
Fourth. There is an integration of the higher education system. It involves continuing the education of students from many countries, for example, in the US or Japan (for Chinese students). The effectiveness of this method of training specialists for the sending countries is unconditional. However, many of them do not return to their homeland.
7. Countries that had the status of a metropolis in the past are guided by the import of labor from their former colonies and dependent countries.
8. If in the countries of traditional migration (USA, Canada, Australia, South Africa) in the XIX century. and the first half of the XX century. Only Europeans drove in, then in the 80’s and 90’s. they make up a small part of migrants. Immigrant flows to these countries are dominated by immigrants from Asia, Latin America, Africa and the Caribbean.
9. One of the characteristic features of the current stage of international migration of the labor force has become an increasingly active interference of the state in this process. It regulates transactions in the world labor market, gives permission for entry and monitors the timing of immigrants’ departure. It is engaged in the recruitment and creation of favorable conditions for the hiring of foreign workers.
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Migration of the population.