Out of the country, here I am no more. Ukrainians scatter like cockroaches.
Anna Laba, RIA Novosti Ukraine.
The number of Ukrainians who are ready to move abroad for permanent residence has significantly increased. If, according to a survey conducted by TNS Online Track, in 2014 there were only 42% of those wishing to leave Ukraine, this year 65% of the Ukrainians surveyed indicated that they would like to leave the country. A third of them do not have the opportunity to leave, 8% would like to leave temporarily until the situation stabilizes, and 20% would like to go abroad for permanent residence. It is worth noting that for two years the number of people wishing to leave permanently doubled. Men are more likely to move to a permanent place of residence abroad (24%). Among the representatives of the older age group, more respondents (34%) do not intend to leave the country, and only 20% of the young respondents are ready to stay.
If we rely on the official statistics, during the time of independence the population of Ukraine decreased by 9 million people. Gosstat fully takes into account fertility and mortality, but with migration there are problems & mdash; It is extremely difficult to take into account migration movements.
As you know, in Ukraine, widespread labor migration is widespread, when people leave the country for some, as a rule, rather limited time. According to experts, about 3 million Ukrainians work abroad all the time. But this figure is far from exact.
Until recently, half of the Ukrainian labor migrants worked in Russia, and the rest of the & ndash; in European countries. The migration exchange with Russia had a circular character & ndash; the person having worked there, returning. A fundamentally different situation evolved in European countries. Because of the difficulties of leaving, and especially legalization, Ukrainians aspired not only to stay there for a long time, but also to take out children and, if possible, families completely.
It should be noted that Ukraine has a negative migration balance & mdash; few foreigners are looking for a better share here. Over the past year, the country was visited by 13.02 million foreign citizens, while the number of Ukrainians traveling abroad reached 23.36 million people. In the structure of the exit flow, Poland is leading. For Ukrainian labor migrants there is a favorable regime. Last year, 9.52 million people traveled to Poland, which is almost a quarter more than in 2014.
In just 6 months of 2016, Poland issued about 700,000 permits to Ukrainians for work.
Most Ukrainians want to stay in Poland for a long time. In 66% of cases, among Ukrainians coming to Poland, labor migration prevails. It is expected that by the end of 2016 citizens of Ukraine will receive about 100 thousand documents, giving the opportunity to live and work in Poland for one to three years.
But the flow of our compatriots leaving for Russia, despite the Ukrainian-Russian conflict, did not change last year, about 4 million Ukrainians left there.
Also active business migration goes to Hungary, where 2.44 million people left last year & ndash; this is the third most popular direction.
Political analyst Alexei Yakubin notes that there are several reasons why Ukrainians are increasingly thinking about emigration.
“Firstly, there is a disappointment in the part of the population, and this is shown by different opinion polls, by the changes that are taking place in the country: more than 50% of the interviewed citizens say that changes do not lead to an improvement in their lives, people feel less secure, and, consequently, their planning horizon is narrowing, and many are beginning to fear that their destiny will be linked to the country.Naturally, they are beginning to look for other options for themselves.The options are more stable, more convenient from the planning view, safer and those that give more opportunities for stability and stability in the future, “& mdash; explains Yakubin.
These socio-economic problems in Ukraine are still superimposed on these moods & mdash; despite many rotations of power, the crisis continues.
“In reality, the number of jobs is declining, including jobs with high wages, which is not the case for Kiev and the million-strong cities, where the situation is even more or less stable, like many smaller cities, where businesses are closed, services are being curtailed, people lose their jobs, of course, they understand that they can not live in these conditions: once there is no work, there is no future, they feel that they can not support their family, and therefore there are moods associated with emigration, “& mdash; the political scientist believes.
In his opinion, the growing emigration sentiment & mdash; this is the attitude of people towards the socio-economic and partly political course that we observe in the country. There is a direct correlation: if people are confident and support the course that the authorities are conducting, then, accordingly, they do not want to leave the country, and vice versa.
Naturally, not all those wishing to leave Ukraine will really pack their bags and buy a one-way ticket.
“These people remain, but leave for the so-called” internal emigration. “This means that a person, realizing that he would like to leave, but can not do this for various reasons, tries to limit himself as much as possible from external contacts, from the influence of all this such people are simply engaged in some day-to-day affairs that are not connected with long-term planning, live “one day,” are not interested in politics and economics, that is, they exclude themselves from a huge number of social contacts. “People who have gone into internal emigration , are solely concerned with survival, “& mdash; said Yakubin.
Unfortunately, the data of recent opinion polls show a huge number of “domestic emigrants”.
“They do not support political structures and social structures, and for any state this is a great danger, they really try to exclude themselves from the political life of the country, try not to be interested in news, something else, and they can become very convenient for some politicians electorate, because people who are disappointed in all do not go to the polls at all or, if they do, then only for a certain material incentive: put a tick and something for it to get & mdash; it will not change anything, “& mdash; the expert explains.
A bad example is contagious.
An important role in the emigrant moods of Ukrainians is played by the behavior of the political class.
“We see that many Ukrainian politicians, despite the fact that they are very fond of putting on embroideries, tearing them at themselves and saying that they are such cool patriots, for some reason send their children to live or study abroad.” This is a very atypical situation for an independent If our top politicians have children abroad, it means that the politician does not connect his future with the country in which he is engaged in political activity. And if so, then the question arises, but should Does such a person generally hold I have a policy? In Ukraine, there is a paradoxical situation when politicians who declare their patriotism send their children abroad and for the population this is also a sign that this is a difficult future in this country, since these politicians who know more are looking for an opportunity leave “, & mdash; said Yakubin.
In addition, the desire to leave the country is the result of credulousness of some Ukrainian citizens.
“People believed that a group of politicians would come and change something, and it was not completely clear what exactly and how they would change, and it would immediately improve their lives.” These politicians urged the people that it would all happen quickly & hellip; well , half a year & hellip, well, now it’s two and a half years, and the socio-economic situation is worse than in 2013, the opportunities have decreased, respectively, there is a total disappointment, which ends either with the departure from the country, or with the internal emigration of our compatriots “, & mdash ; the expert explained.
According to Yakubin, if the current situation in the country does not change, more and more people will not only leave, but the remaining will be less interested in politics and going to the polls.
“In turn, this will mean that politicians, parties, political structures will be less and less legitimate in the eyes of citizens.” Moreover, people will less and less trust political structures, local authorities, for example the same police. , what happened in Krivoye Lake and Loshchinovka speaks of the deligitimacy of the law enforcement structure, the same can be connected with politicians & mdash; people will stop trusting them and this distrust will be transferred to the state, to state institutions, and, accordingly, if the state and politicians do nothing to restore trust, then citizens, if they stay in this country, will lose contact with the state.This is a very sad result, given that Ukraine is 25 years old, this problem of deligitimation could have been resolved very long ago “, & mdash; the expert predicts.
In fact, an increasing number of Ukrainians who dream of leaving the country testify that the authorities are not able to establish a dialogue with citizens.
“But the citizens understand that their interests, what is really important for them, are completely ignored by politicians.” Whatever arguments people put forward, the authorities are not ready to listen to them. “Politicians believe that they are right, but people , on which they formally work, are a priori mistaken, and this is evidence of the failure of the dialogue between the state and citizens.Naturally, people are looking for a way out that they do not identify themselves with the state, do not participate in its initiatives, or leave the country, “& mdash; summed up the expert.
Out of the country, here I am no more. Ukrainians scatter like cockroaches.