Settling and emigration Ukrainian in the second half of the XIX – early XX century.

Settling and emigration Ukrainian in the second half of the XIX – early XX century.
The process of approving capitalist relations in Ukraine was accompanied by a shortage of land and complete de-occupation of the peasantry. The peasants, who lost their main source of existence, aspired to return to the traditional way of life. So, the first and main goal of Ukrainian peasants are the search for free lands.
Continued from the late XVIII – early XIX century. resettlement movement Ukrainian in the Volga region and the North Caucasus. In the second half of the XIX century. the number of the Ukrainian population reached almost 400 thousand people. in the Lower Volga region and 1.3 million in the Caucasus. More than 100 thousand Ukrainian were in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Ukrainian settlers brought their economic experience to the places of new settlements, introduced into the Khliborobsky practice nowadays not known crops of buckwheat, corn, sugar beets, tomatoes, strawberries, etc.
Emigrated Ukrainian and in the low-populated regions of Siberia at the time. At the end of XIX century. they numbered about 225 thousand people. Ukrainian made a significant contribution to the development of the Far Eastern expanses and other marginal lands of the Russian Empire: in unusual climatic conditions, the marshes were drained by heavy labor, the forests were uprooted, and the virgin lands were cultivated.
A new impetus to the Ukrainian resettlement movement to the East was the Stolypin agrarian reforms of 1906-1916.
Of Galicia and Transcarpathia, Ukrainian mostly emigrated to the US, Canada, Brazil. Interested in cheap labor for the development of agriculture and industry of the governments of these countries in the 70-90s of the XIX century. encouraged mass resettlement from abroad. The bulk of emigrants from Ukraine were sent there for work. In 1877 the first emigrant group of Ukrainian settlers, having arrived from Transcarpathia to the USA, joined the ranks of miners in Pennsylvania. The most Ukrainian peasants aspired to receive for agricultural processing a land plot – Homestead (an allotment that was provided from state land funds on preferential terms in the US and Canada wishing to farm)
A lot of them were among the miners, where the earnings were more difficult. Unskilled workers-Ukrainians received a small salary. Despite the material deprivation, the Ukrainian immigration of the United States, which at the end of the XIX century. totaled more than 200 thousand people, preserved the Ukrainian national customs and traditions, realizing itself as a single national community.
end of XIX century. somewhat smaller in number was the Ukrainian immigrant community of Canada. The overwhelming majority were Galician and Bukovinian Ukrainian. They settled in the uninhabited places of Western Canada, where they received homesteads. Having received their own farm, neighbors in homesteads built their homes, formed settlements with the church, school, mail. So there was a Ukrainian village. Like the Ukrainian settlers in the United States, their countrymen in Canada also named Ukraine one of their first settlements.
In newly built settlements, Ukrainian immigrants retained their national traditions – both in the features of housing construction, and in decorative and applied art (furniture, dishes, clothes). They also played a wedding, christening, funeral, celebrated folk and religious holidays, did not forget the folk songs brought from their homeland, and created new ones.
Settling and emigration Ukrainian in the second half of the XIX century. – Early XX century.
One of the first Ukrainian immigrants to America was the Baptists I. Sipchenko, G. Cousins, I. Evfimiy and Yu. Sych.
Priest A. Goncharenko among readers of the newspaper “Svoboda”, edited by him in the US. 1901.
Ukrainian miners in the USA. 1903.
Group of Ukrainian miners in Canada. 1904.
Emigrants from Ukraine at work in the field. Canada. 1904.

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