The main directions of emigration from the CIS countries to foreign Europe The text of a scientific article on the specialty & laquo; History. Historical Sciences & raquo;

The main directions of emigration from the CIS countries to foreign Europe The text of a scientific article on the specialty & laquo; History. Historical Sciences & raquo;
Annotation of a scientific article on history and historical sciences, author of scientific work – Matveev Yu. N.
The article examines the directions of emigration from the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States to European countries in the late XX beginning of the XXI century. The author identifies the types of states depending on the capacity and directions of migration flows.
In this article, we will consider the directions of the emigrant community in the European countries in the end of the twentieth century and in the begining of the twenty first century. The author stands out several groups of countries.
Similar topics of scientific works on history and historical sciences, the author of scientific work – Matveev Yu.N.,
The text of the scientific work on the topic “The main directions of emigration from the CIS countries to foreign Europe”
The main directions of emigration from CIS countries to foreign Europe.
� 2007 Yu. N. Matveev.
associate professor. economic and social geography of KSU, candidate of geographical sciences Kursk State University.
The article examines the directions of emigration from the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States to European countries in the late XX – early XXI century. The author identifies the types of states depending on the capacity and directions of migration flows.
The beginning of mass emigration from the former Soviet republics can be considered 1989, when the ethnic migration of Soviet Jews, Germans and Greeks was permitted. Ethnic migration was the main type of emigration until the end of the 90s, and then gave way to labor migration. The latter were primarily oriented toward Russia, but since 1998 they have gradually begun to reorient themselves to the countries of the West, and primarily to the states of the EU. This was due to the growing negative processes in the economic, social and political life of Russia during this period. To this, it should be added that citizens of the CIS countries have accumulated sufficient migration experience for a decade, formed migratory networks and diasporas in the far-abroad countries.
Depending on the prevailing direction and structure of emigration flows, several groups can be identified among the CIS countries.
The first of these is represented by only one country – Russia, which in the 20th century. gave four waves of emigration. The first three, which were located between 1917 and 1989, yielded 15 million emigrants. Emigration at that time was not only and even not so much from the territory of Russia in its present borders as from the territory of the national borderlands, which later became new independent states. The migration flow of the first three waves from Russia was sent mainly to the USA (up to 80%).
The fourth wave of Russian emigration began in the late 80’s. The directions of migration flows have changed significantly. At that time, due to the increase in the share of those leaving for the EU countries, the share of emigrants to the United States was steadily declining. During the period from 1990 to 2003, 54% of those who left the Russian Federation for far-abroad countries accounted for the EU countries; of them on the FRG – 51%. In 2002-2003, the EU countries accounted for 62% of the Russian migration flow, which was distributed as follows: Germany – 52%, Greece – about 2%, Finland-about 2%, other EU countries – 5%.
Emigration from Russia for the period from 1990 to 2003 did not exceed, with rare exceptions, 100 thousand people a year. And since 1999, the scale of emigration has been steadily declining. This is primarily due to a decrease in the scale of ethnic migration. If in the first half of the 90’s. Ethnic Germans and Jews predominated in the migratory stream from Russia (together 65%), then by 2002 the share of Germans had dropped to 30%, and Jews to 7%, while the share of Russians had grown to 45%.
The main strange emigration for Russian citizens throughout the 90’s. was and remains Germany. The peak of emigration to this country from Russia falls on 1995 (almost 80 thousand people), after which it began to decline and now it is less than 50 thousand people. At the same time, the migration flows of Russian citizens to such EU countries as Finland, Greece, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Spain and Italy are growing.
For the Russian emigration, unlike other CIS countries, a high intellectual component is characteristic. The share of people with higher education in the migration flow in 2002-2003. was 26%, while in the population of the country their share was only 13.3%.
In the 90’s. most of the emigrants left Russia forever, but after 1999 the main type of external migration was return migration. Many specialists working on contracts; students studying in European universities; after a certain time, young interns prefer to return to their homeland.
The second group consists of the European CIS countries: Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova. In the total migration flow from these countries, the share of emigrants to the far abroad, and especially to Europe, is the highest. The main direction of emigration from Ukraine is Germany (50%) and Eastern European states. Most of the Ukrainian citizens who left for foreign Europe are residents of its western regions. The migration flow of Ukrainians to the countries of Eastern Europe that have recently become members of the EU has significantly increased over the past five years. Partly it is represented by ethnic Hungarians, Poles and Slovaks, but the proportion of Ukrainians in it is higher. In the Eastern European states a significant Ukrainian diaspora (700 thousand people) was formed, which contributes to the preservation and strengthening of this migration flow.
A similar effect on emigration from Belarus is provided by the Belarusian diaspora in Poland (170 thousand people), but just like in Ukraine, the main direction of foreign migration in Belarus is Germany (more than 50%). This is followed by Poland, Belgium and the Netherlands.
In Moldova, perhaps, the West European vector of external migrations is most pronounced. It was formed due to the proximity to the Mediterranean countries, the belonging of Moldovans to the Romance language group formed in European countries by the Moldovan migration network. Due to the fact that the overwhelming majority of emigrants from Moldova are abroad illegally, it is very difficult to determine their numbers. Experts and government bodies estimate the number of Moldovan citizens in the EU countries in the range of 100-600 thousand people. If we proceed from the last figure, we can say that Moldova is the most “emigrant” country in the world. The main flow of emigration from Moldova outside the CIS is in southern Europe. Taking into account illegal emigration, the specialists give the following data on the number of Moldovans abroad: Greece – 120 thousand, Italy – about 100 thousand, Spain – more than 60 thousand, Germany – 60 thousand, the Czech Republic – 50 thousand, Portugal – 25-30 thousand
Moldovan emigrants are engaged mainly in construction, transport, extractive industries, in seasonal agricultural work, in trade and services. Many of them have higher education, at home they were qualified workers, but this does not affect their employment abroad.
The third group is the countries of Transcaucasia. The main flow of emigration from them is directed to Russia, but recently the strengthening of the European direction is being traced. According to the Azerbaijani diaspora, more than 50,000 Azerbaijanis settled in Europe in the EU. Of these, Germany accounts for 15 thousand, 5 thousand for the Netherlands-
Ireland and Belgium, to South Europe – about 15 thousand and about 10 thousand – to the East. Most of them live and work there illegally.
The Armenian diaspora is one of the most numerous in the world (5.5 million people). In foreign Europe, there are 755,000 ethnic Armenians. The largest European diasporas were formed in France (450,000) and Poland (100,000), and these countries primarily attract emigrants from Armenia to Europe. According to the assessment of Armenian specialists, about 20 thousand Armenian citizens emigrated to foreign Europe over the past 10 years, but the main flows of emigration from this country are directed to the Russian Federation.
Greece is the largest immigration country for Georgia after Russia. Prior to 1998, mainly ethnic Greeks were sent there, but now the Georgians are dominated by the migration flow from Georgia to Greece. According to various sources in Greece, there are from 50 thousand to 70 thousand former citizens of this country. Another 10-15 thousand Georgians live and work in Germany and Belgium.
The fourth group is Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. From 1989 to 2002 a third of all emigrants left Kazakhstan. Dominated in this flow of ethnic Germans, going to a permanent place of residence in Germany. The Russians accounted for 24%, and the Kazakhs accounted for a very small percentage. The second most important foreign country for Kazakh emigrants was Belgium. A similar picture of migration processes took place at this time in Kyrgyzstan.
The fifth group is Central Asian. For Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, the share of emigration outside the CIS during the 1990s was insignificant. According to experts, the number of citizens of Tajikistan in foreign Europe for 2000 did not exceed 20 thousand people. In the first years of the XXI century due to illegal emigration and the granting of political asylum to the citizens of this country, their numbers in the EU countries increased. For example, in countries such as Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, it has grown by 8 thousand people.
Among the emigrants traveling from Uzbekistan to the European Union, while dominated by Russian and Jews. The number of emigrants from Uzbekistan in foreign Europe is estimated at 20-25 thousand people. It is more difficult to determine the figure more accurately, since most of the emigrants are illegally in Europe and do not pass registration procedures.
Emigration to a foreign Europe from Turkmenistan is insignificant (from several dozens to several hundreds per year). It is represented mainly by the Russian-speaking population seeking asylum in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands.

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