Ukrainians in Canada.
Ukrainians in Canada are one of the national minorities who emigrated from Austria-Hungary, Russian empires and the USSR (until 1945) to Canada.
In 2011, the number of Canadians of only Ukrainian origin was about 276 thousand people, in addition, more than 975 000 people were of partially Ukrainian origin . Due to this number of people of Ukrainian origin, Canada is the third (the source is not specified 495 days) country in the world in terms of the number of Ukrainian population (afterUkraine and Russia). Most Ukrainians in Canada (about 85%) were born in it, have Canadian citizenship and live mainly in western Canada, where in some areas they make up a large part of the population.
Features and Disclaimer.
The term is practically not used when it comes to Russians, Ukrainians, Jews and others who arrived after 1945 from the territory of the Ukrainian SSR or modern Ukraine. The reason is that in the first waves of Ukrainian emigration, first came from Austria-Hungary, then the supporters of the UNR, people from Western Ukraine, after the Second World War – supporters of national resistance movements (UPA, etc.), that is, in all cases, supporters countries or movements that fought against tsarist Russia or the USSR.
History of migration.
The first Ukrainian settlers in Canada were Ivan Pylypiv and Vasily Yelenyak, who came from the village of Nebylov (Rozhnyatovsky district, Ivano-Frankivsk region, where they currently have a monument (at that time it was Austro-Hungary) who arrived in Canada in 1891 and contributed to the resettlement of several families in 1892. Pilty founded the settlement of Edna Star (Alberta – the very first and largest group settlement of Ukrainians in Canada .In addition, the initiator of mass migration of Ukrainians to Canada is Dr.Iosif Oleskiv, to which stimulated and popularized emigration to Canada from Western Ukraine, as well as the Galicia and Bukovina in the late 1890s.
The first wave of immigrants: classes.
The first Ukrainian immigrants in Canada were mainly farmers’ families: they settled whole communities on virgin land in the prairies of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Although the prairies of Canada are often compared to the Ukrainian steppes, this is not entirely true, because, firstly, neither Galicia nor Bukovina, unlike Naddnepryna Ukraine, was a steppe region, but rather a mountain and forest Carpathian or hilly Volyn, secondly, the climate in Canada was much more severe. Ukrainians settled in forest areas closer to Edmonton and Winnipeg, and not in the more southern steppe zones. Canadians of Alberta still joke that life south of Edmonton is uninteresting to them, as there does not grow viburnum. Now the region to the north and northwest of Edmonton by the province of Alberta is recognized by the eco-museum of Kalina-Country. One of the incentives for emigration was the absence of taxes in Canada and the presence of high fees in Austria-Hungary. In addition, many Ukrainians liked the idea of settling in remote remote regions, where they formed compact Ukrainian-speaking communities and were not assimilated until the middle of the 20th century. The opportunity to settle with relatives and friends, organize cultural communities and preserve to some extent your own language facilitated adaptation.
With the outbreak of the First World War from 1914 to 1918, all Ukrainians, naturalized in the British dominion of Canada, Austro-Hungarian citizens, were deported to concentration camps .
The second wave of immigration.
After the First World War, the rural way of life is already becoming less popular among Western-Ukrainian immigrants, and most of them are sent to live in major cities and industrial centers in the east of the country (Montreal and Toronto). Despite the fact that now in Eastern Canada, Ukrainians live more than in the West, their concentration, and therefore the cultural and political weight is incomparably higher in the west of the country.
Among the Eastern European peoples of Canada, Ukrainians, of which more than a million, are especially notable. In Canada, they play a greater role than the almost twice larger diaspora of Ukrainians in the United States. Three medium-western provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba became the center of Ukrainian culture. Ukrainian settlers became fighters for advanced multiculturalism. Born in Galicia, the Slavicist Yaroslav Rudnitsky (1910-1995) and Senator Pavlo Yuzyk (1913-1966) were important theorists and popularizers of multiculturalism. With the Germans and other Eastern European nationalities, they formed a third force in the Midwest against British-French dualism.
To the ethnic Ukrainians who succeeded on the political stage of Canada, one can include William Gavrilyak, who was elected three times by the mayor of the city of Edmonton and the former Prime Minister of Alberta Edward Stelmakh, but the greatest success was reached by Roman Gnatyshin, who in 1990-1995 served as General- Governor of Canada. His father, Ivan Gnatyshin, was a senator from the Progressive Conservative Party.
Population of Ukrainians by regions.
Total – about 5,000,000 (20% of the country’s population) Manitoba – 167,000 (13.2% of the region’s population) Saskatchewan – 129,000 (11.9% of the region’s population) Alberta – 332,000 (8.6% of the region’s population) British Columbia – 197 000 (4.4% of the region’s population) Ontario – 336 000 (2.5% of the region’s population) Quebec – 32 000 (0.4% of the region’s population)
Famous Canadian Ukrainians.
Dave Andreychuk is a Canadian hockey player, winner of the 2004 Stanley Cup. Albert Bandura, scientist, creator of the theory of social learning, president of the Canadian Psychological Association. Fedor Bogatychuk, chess player, doctor of medicine (radiologist), politician. Robert Bondar, the first Canadian woman astronaut and the first neurologist who visited space. Daria Verbova, Canadian top model. Isidor Glynka, Canadian biochemist, leader of the Congress of Canadian Ukrainians, Honorary Doctor of Sciences at the University of Manitoba. Ramon Gnatyshyn, lawyer, Governor-General of Canada. Peter Dmitruk, a sergeant of the Royal Canadian Air Force, who died during World War II, fighting in the French Resistance forces. Stepan Juba, businessman and politician, Mayor of Winnipeg in 1957-1977. Yevgeny Melnik, a billionaire, the founder of one of the largest Canadian pharmaceutical corporations Biovail Corporation, owns the hockey club Ottawa Senators and Melnyk Racing Stables Inc. James Motluk, the Canadian director. Lyubomir Romankiv, inventor, researcher at IBM in the field of computer technology. Roy Romanov, Prime Minister of the province of Saskatchewan in 1991-2001. Yaroslav Rudnitsky, linguist, lexicographer, specialist in the field of etymology, folklore, bibliographer, writer and publicist. John (Ivan) Sopinka, the royal adviser, the first judge of the Supreme Court of Canada of Ukrainian origin, the author of several books on the law. Edward Stelmach, politician, prime minister of the province of Alberta. Sylvia Olga Fedoruk, a scientist in the field of medical physics research, the rector of the University of Saskatchewan, a participant in the development of the world’s first Cobalt-60 apparatus and one of the first nuclear medical scanners. Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan. Christia Freeland, editor of the Reuters agency, was the managing editor of the Financial Times, the author of The Selling the Century. Petro Yatsyk, businessman and philanthropist. Vasil Popadyuk , a violinist-virtuoso, known throughout the world.
Lyciuk, Lubomyr (2000). Searching For Place: Ukrainian Displaced Persons, Canada and the Migration of Memory, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-8088-X Martynowych, Orest (1991). Ukrainians in Canada: The formative period, 1891-1924. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. ISBN 0-920862-76-4. Prymak, Thomas M. (1988). Maple Leaf and Trident: The Ukrainian Canadians During the Second World War. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario. K. Litovchenko. Tragedy of the Ukrainian Diaspora in 1914-1920 Hans-Joachim Hoppe: Ukrainian Dali, Neue Zuercher Zeitung, Inoforum, Russia, September 14, 2009
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Ukrainians in Canada.