“World and national economy”

“World and national economy”
Published by MGIMO Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
�2 (9), 2009.
International labor movement.
Migration of the Turkish labor force to the countries of Western Europe.
NRMasumova, post-graduate student of the Department of World Economics, MGIMO.
The article is devoted to the migration of the Turkish labor force to the countries of Western Europe, with particular attention to the dynamics of migration, the motivation for the emergence and change in the volume of migration flows, as well as the economic component of migration, like the remittances of Turkish migrants to Turkey, and their significance for social and economic development of the country.
Key words: labor migration, migration flows, migrants’ remittances, Turkey, Western Europe.
Turkish Labor Migration to Western Europe.
The article is about the Turkish labor migration to the countries of Western Europe. The author draws special attention to the causes and dynamics of migration flows from Turkey, and to such important component for social and economic development of the country as remittances of Turkish workers .
Key words: labor migration, migration flows, workers & rsquo; remittances, Turkey, Western Europe.
The second half of the twentieth century is characterized by a process of international labor migration, which to some extent affected almost all countries of the world. The geographical position of Turkey, located at the crossroads of three continents & mdash; Asia, Africa and Europe, to some extent determined the specificity of migration flows in the country. Historically, Turkey is a supplying state of the labor force, a donor country. The export of Turkish labor began after World War II mainly to Western Europe, and since the mid-1970s, XX century. and the countries of the Persian Gulf.
The dynamics of the migration of Turkish labor in the twentieth century e.
Under the Constitution of 1961, Turkish citizens received a legal right to free entry and exit from the country. Since that time mass migration of the Turkish labor force to the developed countries of Western Europe has started, which gradually became one of the factors influencing the socio-economic situation in the country. At the heart of this phenomenon lies a number of internal factors: first, high unemployment, incl. hidden, because of the agrarian overpopulation of the country, secondly, high inflation and, thirdly, low wages.
Departure of unskilled labor to European countries was considered in Turkey as a positive factor. Thus, Turkish migrants were given the opportunity to improve their overall level of qualification, and the new knowledge they acquired on studying and operating high-tech equipment could be used in Turkish enterprises when they returned to their homeland.
It is interesting that in the 60-70’s. foreign currency transfers of Turkish citizens from abroad were the main source of foreign exchange earnings to the country, which affected the improvement of Turkey’s balance of payments. For its part, Western Europe after the end of World War II experienced a serious shortage of cheap labor for the restoration of infrastructure, almost completely destroyed after the war, as well as to perform low-skilled work. The evidence of mutual interest is that the Turkish government has signed important bilateral intergovernmental agreements with a number of European states regulating the entry of Turkish migrants and their further employment. So, in 1961 an agreement was signed with Germany, in 1964 & mdash; Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, in 1965 & mdash; France, in 1967 & mdash; Sweden and in 1970 & mdash; Switzerland. [1] Thus, the Turkish government from the very beginning promoted the development of this kind of relations and regulated the process of export of labor at the governmental level. It is also important to note that one of the reasons for the signing of the Association Agreement of Turkey with the European Economic Community (1963) was precisely the free movement of Turkish workers in the member countries of the treaty. So on November 23, 1970 (during the transition stage of Turkey’s integration into the EEC), an Additional Protocol was signed on the free movement of manufactured goods, people, services and capital, but these agreements were not fully implemented in practice.
In Turkey, the National Employment Service established a network of state intermediary agencies for employment abroad. These organizations, in accordance with bilateral agreements between the states, regulated the number and priority of travelers, provided medical examination of migrants (to determine the suitability for the proposed work and to exclude the virus infection of the population of European countries), the formulation of necessary documents, including the conclusion of labor contracts between Turkish workers and foreign employers. [2] Highly paid work abroad attracted more and more Turkish citizens, which contributed to the formation of large queues to leave the country, and since the condition for leaving was the mandatory availability of a specific workplace, it was necessary to wait sometimes for several years.
Remittances of migrants.
As indicated above, migrant remittances were one of the main sources of foreign exchange earnings to the country. Thus, according to the balance of payments data (see Appendix 1), it can be seen that in 1964 the amount of remittances amounted to 8.1 million dollars, and since 1965 this figure has increased 8.6 times and amounted to 69.8 million dollars ., in 1966 & mdash; $ 115.3 million, in 1970 & mdash; $ 273.0 million in the 1970s. migrant workers were allowed to open accounts with state-owned banks that guaranteed a preferential rate when paying out amounts in local currency (the Turkish national currency was not convertible until 1990). [3] With the help of the government, a Working Investment Bank was created to accommodate the resources of Turkish workers. Later transferred money was invested in industrial projects, and Turkish emigrants had an opportunity to return home to work in companies where they invested their own earned money. Also, taking advantage of the situation, the state organized special cooperatives, whose members received a preferential right to leave on condition that they would transfer their earnings to their homeland and invest in various commercial and infrastructural projects. Also, the government partially released migrants from paying customs duties when importing consumer durable goods into the country.
In 1976, the volume of migrants’ transfers to Turkey decreased, the reason for this was the world energy crisis of 1973 – 1974, which also affected Turkey. Since 2002, there has been a trend towards a reduction in the volume of remittances. Finally, I would like to note that at present the share of remittances in Turkey’s GDP is low and on average for the last 5 years this indicator does not exceed 0.2%. And the gap between exports and imports, if in 1984, 62.1% was covered by currency transfers of migrants, then since 2003 this indicator averaged 3.2%. In the conditions of the world financial crisis that has erupted, there is a decrease in employment and as a result, remittances of monetary migrants in January 2009 decreased more than 2 times, compared to the same period in 2008 (in January 2008, remittances of labor migrants amounted to 110 million. dollars, in January 2009 – $ 50 million). [4]
Influence of internal and external factors on migration processes in Turkey.
The migratory flows of the Turkish labor force depended not only on the situation in Turkey, but also on the migration policy of the countries of Europe. After the 1970s, when the reorientation of European industry began on science-intensive and environmentally friendly production, and also in connection with the withdrawal of harmful industries to developing countries, the conditions for the entry of new migrants began to become tougher, and even their departure to their homeland was encouraged. In Germany, for example, in November 1983, a law was adopted to facilitate the return of foreigners to their homes, [5] according to which every immigrant was paid 10.5 thousand marks as a bonus and 1,500 marks for his departure to his homeland. Every member of the family who is leaving with him. In addition, these migrants were returned all their contributions from the social insurance fund. In France, each repatriated migrant worker was given 70-100 thousand francs [6]
Some of the Turkish workers took advantage of this program and in the first years after the adoption of these laws, the number of Turkish migrants decreased. However, many have abandoned the return program, realizing the complexity of the current situation & mdash; in the future they will not be able to return to the host country, in addition to Turkey’s prospects and chances of finding a job with the same level of pay is negligible. Therefore, in the future, their number continued to grow, especially in connection with the program of family reunification. The influx of members of migrant families only aggravated the situation and contributed to the formation of entire settlement squares, the so-called “ghetto”. The compact residence of the Turkish community, especially those consisting of families, has led to a slowdown in the process of adapting to the realities of the host country: traditions, the rhythm of life, culture. The unreasonable work of migrants and problems with learning a foreign language also helped to isolate them from members of Western society. Such difficulties were mostly experienced by a generation older than 45 years. While accepting migrants, Western European countries did not take into account the fact that the majority of the workers arrived will remain in the country forever, considering them as temporary workers, and consequently, programs on the integration of migrants into society were not developed in time.
Geography of Turkish labor migration.
According to data for 2006 (see Annex 2), there are 3.4 million Turks living abroad, of which 52.1% live in Germany, 12.7% – & mdash; in France, 11% & mdash; in Holland. Germany has traditionally been the leader among the countries in terms of the number of Turks living. The reason for this is that after the end of World War II, Germany, in urgent need of labor, had in fact a monopoly on the hiring of Turkish workers because of the historical proximity of the countries’ economic ties. And already since 1972, the Turkish diaspora has become one of the largest ethnic groups in Germany. [7]
Since 1972-2006. 732.5 thousand Turks received citizenship in Germany, from 1946-2005. & mdash; 228.3 thousand in Holland, from 1985-2006. & mdash; 129.5 thousand Turks in Belgium. In total for 2006, 1480,3 thousand people received foreign citizenship (see Appendix 3).
In connection with the tightening of conditions for the issuance of labor visas from the 90’s. There was an increase in the number of people seeking political asylum, as well as pseudo tourists from Turkey to Europe (mainly to Germany, France and Austria), but in the last few years there has been a tendency to reduce them (see Appendix 4). So, if in 2000 the number of Turkish citizens granted political asylum in Europe was 28.2 thousand people, then in 2006 & mdash; already only 8,2 thousand people. The most correct explanation is & mdash; the economic growth that began in 2002 in Turkey, and the improvement of the social situation of the country’s population.
It should also be noted that the National Employment Service took an active part in the process of labor migration and increasingly used the contractual basis more and more over the past few years. So, in 2007, the Service sent 70,024 workers abroad (see Appendix 5). For comparison, for example, in 2000, only 13.6 thousand people were sent. At the same time, mainly they were people who contracted from 3 months to 2 years with Turkish or foreign companies for work in the CIS countries (58.5%), in the Middle East (34.2%) and in European countries (6 , 8%) (see Annex 6).
I would also like to note that, with the help of labor migrants, the countries of the West are currently hoping to solve to some extent the demographic problem that they have developed. As you know, the population of Europe is rapidly aging, the birth rate is declining, the rate of population growth is slowing, while the life expectancy is increasing, and so is the burden on the economically active population, which leads to a shortage of labor. And Turkey, where almost 67% of the population are people aged 16 to 64 years, is able to some extent to supplement the labor resources of the developed countries of Europe.
Remittances of Turkish workers to their homeland.
from 1964 to 2008.
Rates of increase in transfers in% to the previous year.
Trade balance.
Share of remittances in the balance of trade balance (%)
Calculated by: 1) EI Urazova. Turkey: Problems of Financing Economic Development. & mdash; The science. & mdash; M., 1974. P.205. 2) T & UUM; RKIYE CUMHURIYET MERKEZ BANKASI. Balance of Payments and International Investment Position: 2009.
Turkish citizens in European countries.
Turkish citizens living abroad.
Working Turkish citizens.
Temporary Turkish citizens.
Source: T.C. & Cedil; al sma ve Sosyal G ven venlik Bakanl g , D s Iliskiler ve Yurtd s Is & c; i Hizmetleri Genel M & r r & & & & &. YURTDISINDAKI VATANDASLARIMIZLA ILGILI SAYISAL BILGILER. 2006 Raporu. S.18.
Notes: (*) Including citizens of Turkey who have dual citizenship.
The number of Turkish citizens and workers abroad.
The able-bodied population of Turkey.
Source: Turkey and International Migration. SOPEMI Report for Turkey 2006/2007. Istanbul 2007.
who obtained citizenship in European countries.
Persons who received political asylum in European countries.
Source: Turkey and International Migration. SOPEMI Report for Turkey 2006/2007. Istanbul 2007.
Number of Turkish workers poisoned abroad by the National Employment Service of Turkey.
Other European countries.
Countries of the Middle East.
Australia, Canada, USA.
Source: Turkey and International Migration. SOPEMI Report for Turkey 2006/2007. Istanbul 2007.
Number of Turkish workers poisoned abroad.
National Employment Service of Turkey.
Countries of the Middle East.
Source: 1) Turkey and International Migration. SOPEMI Report for Turkey 2006/2007. Istanbul 2007. 2) T.C. & Cedil; al sma ve Sosyal G ven venlik Bakanl g , D s Iliskiler ve Yurtd s Is & c; i Hizmetleri Genel M & r r & & & & &. 2007 Y l Faaliyet Raporu. http://statik.iskur.gov.tr/tr/rapor_bulten/2007_yili_faaliyet_raporu.pdf.
Report for the European Commission & ldquo; International Migrants Remittances in Turkey, Ahmet Icduygu, European University Institute, RSCAS, 2006. OECD Economic Outlook. No. 78. Paris. December 2005. Salt J. Current Trends in International Migration in Europe, Council of Europe. Working paper, CDMG, 2005. SOPEMI, Trends of International Migration. OECD, Paris, 2004. SOPEMI, Turkey and International Migration, 2004. Istanbul, 2005. International Migration Outlook: SOPEMI & mdash; 2008 Edition. OECD 2008 SOPEMI Report for Turkey 2006/2007. Turkey and International Migration. Istanbul 2007. World Employment Report 2004-05. & mdash; Geneva, 2004, 250 p. Sites of international and governmental organizations, statistical centers (see Internet sources).
Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge History of Turkey, Volume 4: Turkey in the Modern World. Edited by Resat Kasaba. 2008 Ksendzyk N.N. Turkish labor immigration in Western Europe (70th-80th) / Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Institute of Soc. and econ. probl. notch. countries; Otv. Ed. I.F. Chernikov. & mdash; Kiev: Nauk.dumka., 1991. & mdash; 108 s. Actual problems of Europe. Western Europe before the challenge of immigration .: Sat. scientific. tr. / RAS. INION. Center of Scientific Information. Issled. global. and the region. probl. Otd. Zap. Europe and America; Rarely .: Kondratieva TS, Novozhenova IS (red.-comp.), etc. & mdash; M., 2005. & mdash; 220 sec. Actual problems of Europe. Immigrants in Europe: Problems of social and cultural adaptation. Sat. scientific. tr. / RAS. INION. Center of Scientific Information. Issled. glob. and the region. probl. Otd. Zap. Europe and America; Rarely .: Kondratieva TS, Novozhenova IS (red.-cons.). and others. & mdash; M., 2006. & mdash; 228 sec. Turkey in the twentieth century: [Sat.st.] / Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences; [responsible. Ed. E.I. Urazov]. & mdash; M .: Acad. humanitarian. Issled., 2004. & mdash; p.352. Aydas, O.T., 2002, & lt; / RTI & gt; Determinants of Workers Remittances: The Case of Turkey, M.A. Thesis, Bilkent University, Ankara. Scott McDonald, Yontem Sonmez, Jonathan Perraton: & ldquo; Labor Migration and Remittances: Some Implications of Turkish Workers in Germany & Addis Ababa, 2006. REPORT 2004-05.
1. Migration Policy Institute / Migration information source December 1, 2005.
2. Population Growth and Migration.
3. The Changing Mosaic of Mediterranean Migrations.
[1] Ksendzyk N.N. Turkish labor immigration in Western Europe (70th-80th) / Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Institute of Soc. and econ. probl. notch. countries; Otv. Ed. I.F. Chernikov. & mdash; Kiev: Nauk.dumka., 1991. & mdash; p.7.
[2] Ivakhnyuk I.V. International Labor Migration. & mdash; M .: TEIS, 2005. & mdash; p.191-192.
[3] Ivakhnyuk I.V. International Labor Migration. & mdash; M .: TEIS, 2005. & mdash; p.192.
[4] T & Uuml; RKIYE CUMHURIYET MERKEZ BANKASI. Balance of Payments and International Investment Position: 2009.
[5] Ksendzyk N.N. Turkish labor immigration in Western Europe (70th-80th) / Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Institute of Soc. and econ. probl. notch. countries; Otv. Ed. I.F. Chernikov. & mdash; Kiev: Nauk.dumka., 1991. & mdash; p.10.
[6] Actual problems of Europe. Western Europe before the challenge of immigration .: Sat. scientific. tr. / RAS. INION. Center of Scientific Information. Issled. global. and the region. probl. Otd. Zap. Europe and America; Rarely .: Kondratieva TS, Novozhenova IS (red.-comp.), etc. & mdash; M., 2005. & mdash; from. 70-71.
[7] Today in Germany there are about 2 million Turks, their share in the foreign population is 28%. Actual problems of Europe. Immigrants in Europe: Problems of social and cultural adaptation. Sat. scientific. tr. / RAS. INION. Center of Scientific Information. Issled. glob. and the region. probl. Otd. Zap. Europe and America; Rarely .: Kondratieva TS, Novozhenova IS (red.-cons.). and others. & mdash; M., 2006. & mdash; p.23.
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